Possible Linkages Between Algae Toxins in Drinking Water and Related Illnesses in Windhoek, Namibia

The sub-tropical climate in Namibia, together with nutrients in the water, creates a good environment for phytoplankton, especially cyanobacteria. Many of these produce toxins that can be harmful to people and animals. One of the algal toxins is microcystin. This toxin is hepatotoxic, i.e. the primary toxic effect is on the liver. Cases of gastro-enteritis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, muscle weakness and paralysis have been associated with the consumption of water containing high numbers of blue-green algae all over the world.The aim of this study was to chart the possible linkages between algae toxins in drinking water and related illnesses in Windhoek…


2.Presentation of problem
2.1 Objective
3.1 Sustainable development in Namibia
3.1.1 The water situation in Namibia
3.1.2 Water policy in Namibia
3.1.3 Water in Windhoek
3.2 The cyanobacteria
3.2.1 Microcystin
3.2.2 Health effects
4. Methods
4.1 Data collection
4.2 A review of collected data
5. Results
5.1 Analytical results on water
5.2 Relationship between different parameters
5.3 Bacteria analyses of the drinking water
5.4 Complaints on the water quality
6. Discussion
7. Conclusions
8. Acknowledgment

Author: Gunnarsson, Helena,Sanseovic, Ana-Maria

Source: Kristianstad University

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