Challenges and Solution of UMTS Handover

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is the third-generation (3G) cell phone technology. UMTS offers telecommunications services (like speech or SMS) and bearer services, which provide the capability for information transfer between access points. It is possible to negotiate and renegotiate the characteristics of a bearer service at session or connection establishment and during ongoing session or connection. Both connection-oriented and connectionless services are offered for Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint communication. The radio interface of UMTS is called UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) which uses W-CDMA as the underlying air interface [19].4G technology is also being developed for the heterogeneous networks e.g. WiMax. Today mobile wireless infrastructure is commonly-seen as one of the most advanced form of human communications. The last decade GSM technology has been a leading force in this revolution. Simultaneously with the phenomenal deployment of wireless networks and distribution of user terminals, also the Internet has seen a similar revolutionary growth.Handover means changing/switching of a mobile transmission from one channel to another. The main purpose of handover is to maintain an ongoing call when the hardware changes the channel, whether it is in the same cell or a different cell. Whenever a handover occurs there is always a handover delay which dictates that we cannot guarantee the service continuity. Though the handover time is msec but if there is a long handover latency, it will results in high packet losses and degradation of end-to-end TCP performance in case of packet switched data. Delay sensitive real-time applications demands packet lossless and low latency Quality-of-Service (QOS) guarantee during handover.In this thesis we will find the reasons of delay and packet loss during the handover and effect on the QOS (quality of services).



1.1. Brief History Cellular Networks
1.2. Advancements
1.2.1 First Generation
1.2.2 Second Generation
1.2.3 Third Generation 3G Standardization
1.3 Emerging Technologies
1.3.1 WLAN
1.3.2 WIMAX
1.3.3 WIBRO
1.3.4 HSPA
1.3.5 UMTS
1.4 Comparison of Technologies
1.4.1 WLAN, WIMAX, WIBro
2.1 UMTS Network Overview
2.1.1 UMTS Position in 3G
2.1.2 UMTS for customers
2.1.3 UMTS for the operator
2.2 Standardization
2.3 UMTS Network Services
2.3.1 General services
2.3.2 Quality of Service
2.3.3 UMTS services Capability Location based services WAP Service MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) CAMEL VHE (Virtual Home Environment)
2.4 UMTS Network Architecture
2.4.1 User Equipment
2.4.2 UTRAN
2.4.3 Core Network Circuit Switched Domain Packet Switched Domain
2.5 UMTS Interfaces
2.5.1 Iu interface
2.5.2 Iur Interface
2.5.3 Iub Interface
2.5.4 Uu Interface
2.6. WCDMA Physical Layer
2.6.1 Spread Spectrum Systems
2.6.2 Duplex Method
2.6.3 Power Control Open loop power control Closed loop power control Outer loop power control
2.6.4 Multi Path Diversity
2.6.5 Network Capacity
2.6.6 UMTS channel
2.6.7 Cell States
2.6.8 Cell Structure
2.7. Feasibility of UMTS
2.7.1. Technical Feasibility
2.7.2. Economical Feasibility
2.7.3. Operational Feasibility
2.8. Future Perspective of UMTS
2.8.1. HSDPA HSDPA Architecture
2.8.2. MBMS
2.8.3. LTE
3.1 Overview
3.2 Challenges in UMTS Handover
3.3 Handover Initiation
3.3.1 Mobile initiated
3.3.2 Mobile assisted
3.3.3 Network Initiated
3.3.4 Network Assisted
3.4 Handover Requirements
3.5 Handover Types
3.5.1 Horizontal Handover
3.5.2 Vertical handover
3.5.3 Intra cell Handover
3.5.4 Inter system Handover
3.5.5 Hard Handover
3.5.6 Soft Handover
3.5.7 Softer Handover
3.6 Causes of UMTS Handover
3.7 Objectives of Handover
3.8 Handover Procedure
3.8.1 Measurement
3.8.2 Decision
3.8.3 Execution
3.9 Handover Stratgies
3.9.1 Non Prioritized Strategy
3.9.2 Reserved Channel Strategy
3.10 Simulation Results
3.11 Soft Handover Principles
3.12 Soft Handover Algorithm
3.13 Features of SHO
3.14 SHO Probability and Overhead
3.15 SHO Simulation Results
3.16 Derivation Of Optimized SHO Overhead and Threshold
3.17 SHO Optimization…
4.1 Overview
4.2 Location Management Schemes
4.2.1. Location Management at Cell Level
4.2.2. Location Management at UTRAN Level
4.2.3 Location Management at Routing Level
4.3 Inactivity Counter Mechanism (ICM) in Location Management
4.3.1 ICM in Packet Switched Core Network
4.3.2 ICM in UTRAN
4.4 Location Update and Paging Cost for PMM-connected UEs
4.5 Location Update and Paging Cost for PMM-idle UEs
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Future Work

Author: Naeem Qaisar , Mushtaq Ahmad

Source: Blekinge Institute of Technology

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