Efficient content distribution in IPTV environments

Existing VoD solutions often rely on unicast to distribute content, which leads to a higher load on the VoD server as more nodes become interested in the content. In such case, P2P is an alternative way of distributing content since it makes better use of available resources in the network. In this report, several P2P structures are evaluated from an operators point of view. We believe BitTorrent is the most adequate protocol for a P2P solution in IPTV environments. Two BitTorrent clients have been implemented on an IP-STB as proof of concept to find out whether P2P is suited for IPTV environments. Several tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of both clients and to see if they were able to reach a sufficient throughput on the IP-STB. Based upon the tests and the overall impressions, we are convinced that this particular P2P protocol is well suited for IPTV environments. Hopefully, a client developed from scratch for the IP-STB will offer even greater characteristics…


1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
1.2 Problem description
1.3 Objectives
1.4 Terminology
1.5 Limitations
1.6 Report outline
2 Background
2.1 Network basics
2.1.1 OSI
2.1.2 Ethernet
2.1.3 IP
2.1.4 TCP
2.1.5 UDP
2.2 Video basics
2.2.1 MPEG-2
2.2.2 MPEG-TS
2.3 IP-STB architecture
2.3.1 Hardware
2.3.2 Hardware Abstraction Layer
2.3.3 Operating system
2.3.4 Application services
2.4 Present IPTV situation
2.5 Introduction to P2P
2.6 Requirements
3 Evaluation of P2P structures
3.1 Overlay networks
3.2 Centralized structure
3.2.1 Napster
3.2.2 BitTorrent
3.3 Decentralized structure
3.3.1 Gnutella
3.3.2 DHT
3.4 Semi-centralized structure
3.4.1 FastTrack
3.5 Discussion
4 BitTorrent
4.1 BitTorrent components
4.2 An overview of how BitTorrent works
4.3 Peer selection
4.4 Advantages with BitTorrent
4.5 Disadvantages with BitTorrent
4.6 Implementation
4.6.1 Available clients
4.6.2 Compilation
5 Tests and results
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Limiting the download speed
5.2.1 rTorrent
5.2.2 BTPD
5.3 Limiting the number of peers
5.3.1 rTorrent
5.3.2 BTPD
5.4 Restricting the buffer size
5.4.1 rTorrent
5.4.2 BTPD
5.5 Limiting the upload speed
5.5.1 rTorrent
5.5.2 BTPD
5.6 Watching content while downloading
5.6.1 rTorrent
5.6.2 BTPD
5.7 Conclusions
6 Conceptual design
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Synchronization
6.3 Content distribution
6.4 Detailed overview
7 Future work
7.1 Network coding
7.1.1 Introduction
7.1.2 Max-flow min-cut theorem
7.1.3 Centralized and decentralized network coding
7.1.4 Network coding in IPTV environments
7.2 BitTorrent with streaming capability
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 TOAST
7.2.3 BiToS
8 Conclusion

Author: Galijasevic, Mirza,Liedgren, Carl

Source: Linköping University

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