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Ecofeminism and Environmental Ethics

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This study focuses on ecofeminist ethical theory. A first aim is to clarify ecofeminist views on five central issues in the field of environmental ethics. These issues are: (1) Views of nature, (2) social constructivism and nature, (3) values of nature, (4) ethical contextualism, and (5) ethical pluralism. A second aim is to compare ecofeminist standpoints with certain standpoints within nonfeminist environmental ethical theory. A third aim is to critically discuss some of the main standpoints in ecofeminism. The analysis focuses on the works of Karen Warren, Sallie McFague, Chris Cuomo, and Carolyn Merchant. Other important sources are the environmental philosophers and ethicists J. Baird Callicott, Paul Taylor, Irene Klaver, Bryan G. Norton, Christopher Stone, Eugene Hargrove, Holmes Rolston III, Per Ariansen, Don E. Marietta, and Bruno Latour.The result of this study is that there are no main differences between ecofeminism and nonfeminist environmental ethics regarding the main standpoints on the five issues…

Contents

Introduction
Aims and Problems
Method
Five Central Issues in Environmental Ethics
Main Material
Terminology
The Field of Research
Outline
Chapter 1. Five Central Issues in Environmental Ethics
1. Views of Nature
2. Social Constructivism and Nature
3. Values of Nature
Anthropocentric, Biocentric, and Ecocentric Values of Nature
Origins of Values of Nature
4. Environmental Ethics and Ethical Contextualism
Universalism and Four Meanings of Context
Kinds of Ethical Contextualism
Contextual Influence on Ethical Theory
5. Intrapersonal Pluralism and the Conception of an Inconsistent Self
Reconstructing an Ideal of the Consistent Self
Conclusion
Chapter 2. Ecofeminism and Views of Nature
Nature as Subject
Nature as Our Partner
Nature as Informant
Nature as Ecological Communities
Conclusion
Chapter 3. Ecofeminism, Social Constructivism, and Nature
Construing the Meaning of Nature
Constructing Knowledge of Nature
Inventing Meanings of Nature through Metaphor
Conclusion
Chapter 4. Ecofeminism and Values of Nature
The Value of Nature and Subjectivism
The Value of Nature, Moral Sentiments and Nonhuman Flourishing
The Intrinsic Value of Eco/Social Goods
The Intrinsic worth of Nature as Process
Conclusion
Chapter 5. Ecofeminism and Ethical Contextualism
A Strong Contextualism Based on Touch
Context as Particular Relationships
Epistemological and Normative Contextualism
Strong Contextualism
A Strong Contextualism Based on Power Structures
Context as Power Structures
Semantic and Normative Contextualism
Strong Contextualism
Radical and Strong Contextualism based on Rules of Ethical Thinking
Normative and Epistemological Contextualism
Radical, Strong, and Moderate Contextualism
Individual Contextualism
Universally Shared Aspects to Consider
Radical Contextualism and Historical Processes
Conclusion
Chapter 6. Ecofeminism, Intrapersonal Pluralism, and the Idea of an Inconsistent Self
A Relational Self
From “Nature” to “Nonhuman Nature”
An Ecological Relational Self
A Consistent Self
Conceptual Frameworks and a Consistent Self
A Cyborg with a Curdled Self
A Curdled Self
An Embodied Self
Conclusion
Chapter 7. A Conclusive and Comparative Analysis of Ecofeminist Ethical Theory and Environmental Ethical Theory
1. Ecofeminist Views of Nature and Environmental Ethics
2. Everything about Nature is a Product of Social Processes –Except Nature
Ecofeminist Inventionism
Social and Individual Constructivism
Ecofeminist Social Constructivism and Nonfeminist Environmental Philosophy
3. Ecofeminism on the Values of Nature
4. Ecofeminism and Nonfeminist Environmental Ethical
Contextualism
Contextual Aspects
Theoretical Aspects and Extent of Contextual Influence
5. Ecofeminism, Inconsistent Selves, and Nonfeminist Monism
Concluding Remarks on Ecofeminist Ethical Theory
Chapter 8. Ecofeminist Ethical Theory – Advantages and Disadvantages
Standards of Evaluation
Where is Nature Anyway?
Anything Goes with Nature as a Construct
Normative Relativism and Explicated Systems of Reference
Ecofeminist Dualistic Construism
Valuing Nature at the End of the Day
Three Arguments against Ecofeminist Value Subjectivism
In Favor of Flexible Locus of Value
An Argument in Favor of Ecofeminist Ecogenic
An Argument in Favor of Ecofeminist Ecogenic
Origin of Value
Worth and Value – Concluding Remarks on
Ecofeminist Conceptions of Value
Environmental Problems and Contextual Ecofeminist Ethical Theory
The Meaning of Context
The Significance of Contextual Aspects
Aspects of Ethical Theory
From Moral Contextualism to Ethical Contextualism –Concluding Remarks
The Cyborg Self and Intrapersonal pluralism
A Sense of an Organized Cyborg Self
Moral Mature People Endure Inconsistency
Normative Theories are External to the Self
Ecofeminist Ethical Theory Contested –
Concluding Remarks on the Study
Characteristics of Ecofeminist Ethical Theory
Significant Differences between Ecofeminist and Nonfeminist Environmental Ethical Theory
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ecofeminist Ethical Theory
Bibliography
Index of Personal Names

Author: Kronlid, David

Source: Uppsala University Library

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