Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis

This dissertation is focused on the application of electric fields for evaluation and control of chemical systems. An electric field could lead to the flow of charge across an interface between a metal and a solution, by way of chemical reactions. This interplay involving electricity and chemistry, i.e. electrochemistry, is actually a field of vital significance both for analysis and industry. Apps dependant on electrochemical principles include these different areas as batteries and fuel cells, pH electrodes, as well as the glucose monitor utilized by individuals battling with diabetes. A significant section of the existing work concerns using static electric fields in methods that contains a non-contacted metal surface. In this particular setup you’ll be able to manage the degree of electrochemical reactions at distinct positions on the metal. This enables the formation and assessment of several kinds of gradients on electrodes, by way of indirectly induced electrochemical reactions. This method is different and straightforward means of forming for example molecular gradients on conducting surfaces. They are quite beneficial in biomimetic research, because a gradient has a large amount of discrete combinations of such as 2 molecules. The foundation for the method is the application of bipolar electrochemistry. In short , a surface may become a bipolar electrode (an electrode that acts as both anode and cathode) when the electric field in the solution surpasses a particular tolerance value, thus inducing redox reactions at both sides. In our tests, the driving force for these reactions fluctuate along the electrode surface. Because the result of an electrochemical reaction could possibly be the deposition or elimination of material from an electrode, bipolar electrochemistry may be utilized to generate gradients of that material on a surface. To be able to achieve a better idea of these processes, the potential and existing density distributions at bipolar electrodes had been looked into with various techniques. Particularly the use of imaging strategies was vital for the visualization and analysis of the gradients. By using this knowledge, the development of more sophisticated gradients was indeed facilitated, and also the outcome was further compared with simulations according to simple conductivity models…

Contents: Electric Fields for Surface Design and Chemical Analysis

1 General introduction
2 Electrochemistry
2.1 Introduction to electrochemical reactions
2.2 The electrical double layer
2.3 Electrochemical cells and cell resistance
2.4 Mass transfer and the diffusion layer
2.5 Voltammetry
2.6 Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
2.6.1 Theory
2.6.2 General applications
2.7 Bipolar electrochemistry
2.8 Limitations of electrochemistry
3 Imaging optical methods and electrochemistry
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Surface plasmon resonance
3.2.1 Theory
3.2.2 SPR and electrochemistry
3.3 Ellipsometry
3.3.1 Theory
3.3.2 Ellipsometry and electrochemistry
4 Electrode surface design and analysis
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Materials and methods
4.3 Surface gradients
5 Alternating electric fields for chemical analysis
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Practical considerations
5.3 Applications
xiii6 Future outlook..

Source: Linköping University

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