Head and Neck Cancer: Factors Affecting Tumour Growth

Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, with an estimated annual global incidence of over 500,000 cases. These malignant tumours develop in the mucosal linings of the upper respiratory tract or in the salivary glands. The most common sites are in the oral cavity and larynx.¬† The aim of this thesis was to study the different factors affecting tumour growth in head and neck cancer that may have clinical implications in the future. Factors involving apoptosis, cell cycle activity, inflammation, and enzyme activity were of special interest. The results of the thesis indicate that patients with malignant salivary gland tumours having the lowest level of actively replicating cells have the best prognosis. The largest amount of replicating cells in tongue cancer specimens was found in the peripheral areas of tumour nests…

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 CANCER IN THE HEAD AND NECK
1.2 MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION
1.3 APOPTOSIS
1.3.1 General considerations
1.3.2 p53
1.3.3 Fas-receptor
1.3.4 The Bcl-2 protein family
1.3.5 Metallothionein
1.4 CELL PROLIFERATION AND TUMOUR PROGRESS
1.4.1 General considerations
1.4.2 Epidermal growth factor receptor
1.4.3 Matrix metalloproteinases
1.4.3.1 MMPs in tumour progression
1.4.3.2 Importance of matrix metalloproteinases in head and neck cancer
1.5 INFLAMMATION AND CANCER
1.5.1 The intratumoral milieu
1.5.2 Cytokines as signal mediators
1.5.2.1 Interleukin-6
1.5.2.2 Tumour necrosis factor
1.5.2.3 Hepatocyte growth factor
1.5.2.4 Interleukin-8
1.5.3 Intercellular adhesion molecule-1
1.6 NEW TREATMENT MODALITIES
1.6.1 Therapeutic agents affecting cell cycle control and apoptosis
1.6.2 Immune therapy
1.6.3 Cytotoxic and immuno-modulatory agents
1.6.3.1 Interferon
1.6.3.2 Retinoids
1.6.4 MMP-inhibitors
1.6.5 Other treatment agents
2 AIMS OF THE STUDY
3 MATERIAL AND METHODS
4 RESULTS
5 DISCUSSION
6 CONCLUSIONS
7 FUTURE RESEARCH
8 REFERENCES
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ORIGINAL PUBLICATIONS

Author: Sundelin, Kaarina

Source: Linköping University

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