The events of September 11th showed the combined effects of fire and structural loading on a high-rise building can be disastrous. Understanding the mechanism of structural damage caused by fire will help engineers design safer infrastructures by providing adequate resistance to failure. Contemporary research in computational fluid dynamics and finite element method have produced great advances to simulate…


Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.2 Objective
1.3 Structural fire testing
1.4 Applications of scale modeling
1.5 Structural behavior in fire
1.6 Thermal response of structural members
1.7 Organization of dissertation
Chapter 2: Scale modeling of compartment fire
2.1 Background of fire scaling
2.2 Theoretical development of compartment fire scaling
2.2.1 Time scale
2.2.2 Energy equation
2.2.3 Scaling of fuel (wood cribs)
2.2.4 Scaling of compartment boundaries
2.2.5 Strategy of partial scaling
2.3 Experimental investigation of scaled compartment fires
2.3.1 Practical approaches
2.3.2 Design of wood cribs
2.3.3 Design of compartment walls
2.3.4 Experimental set-up
2.3.5 Results of scaled compartmental fires
Chapter 3: Scale modeling of structures and insulation
3.1 Theoretical development of structural scaling
3.2 Testing of scaled frames in oven
3.3 Theoretical development of insulation scaling
3.4 Numerical simulation of thermal response of insulated steel
3.5 Experimental validation of insulation scaling
3.5.1 Test of insulated steel rods
3.5.2 Test of insulated steel tubes: comparison of two approaches
Chapter 4: Scaled model experiments of structures subjected to fire and gravity load
4.1 Construction of steel frames with insulation
4.2 Experimental results of frame testing in fire
4.3 Conclusion .
Chapter 5: Failure prediction by use of scaled models
5.1 Scale modeling of structural failure
5.2 Similitude relation of structural failure
5.2.1 Local buckling
5.2.2 Elastic buckling
5.2.3 Lateral torsional buckling
5.3 Similitude relation of fire, structures, and insulation
5.4 Methodology of failure prediction by using scaled models
5.5 Failure tests of beams in scaled compartment fires
5.6 Conclusion
Chapter 6: Investigation of World Trade Center Tower 1 collapse based on tests of scaled model
6.1 Construction of scaled model
6.1.1 Wood cribs and jet fuel
6.1.2 Wall and floor materia
6.1.3 Insulation on stee
6.2 Test of 1/20-scale model
6.3 Results and analysis
6.4 Conclusion and discussion
Chapter 7: Modeling of restrained steel beam in fire with consideration of local yielding
7.1 Development of local yielding and deflection
7.2 Estimation of axial boundary restraint
7.3 Simplified beam model with pseudo rotational springs
7.3.1 Beam behavior at small transverse deflection
7.3.2 Beam behavior with large transverse deflection
7.3.3 Determination of stiffness of rotational springs
7.4 Validation of simplified method
7.5 Conclusion
Chapter 8: Conclusions and future work
8.1 Conclusions
8.2 Suggestion on future work

Author: Wang, Ming

Source: University of Maryland

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