Transition States in Africa: A Comparative Study: The Case of Ghana & Zambia

The author believes that there are important lessons to be learned from the states in Africa that have managed to achieve successful transitions from one-party regimes to multy-party regimes. However, Africa today displays countries that suffer from enormous problems and many of them are mired in political and economical development. A main theme of this thesis is the search for the differences, how can we explain the transitions and the outcomes of them?

Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to describe the nature of transitions as Bratton & de Walle explain them and to see if their suggested explanations hold true in Ghana & Zambia. A secondary purpose also includes a comparison between the two cases and the differences between them.


1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose
1.2 Method
1.2.1 A Qualitative Literature Study
1.2.2 A Focused Comparison
1.3 Applying the Method
1.4 Explaining Important Definitions
2 Phases of Transitions in an African Context
2.1 Crisis of Political Legitimacy
2.2 Economic Protests
2.3 Government Responses
2.4 Politicization of Demands
2.5 Political Reforms
2.6 Constitutional Reform
2.7 Founding Elections
2.8 Important Factors Explaining Transitions
3 Political Protest
3.1 Economic Reasons
3.2 International Reasons
3.3 Political Reasons
4 Political Liberalization
4.1 Economic Reasons
4.2 International Reasons
4.3 Political reasons
5 Democratic Transition
5.1 Economic Reasons
5.2 International Reasons
5.3 Political Reasons
6 Zambia
6.1 After Independence
6.2 The Transition
6.3 Contemporary Government Structure
7 Ghana
7.1 After Independence
7.2 The Transition
7.3 Contemporary Government Structure
8 A Comparative Analysis
8.1 Examining Bratton & de Walle’s Keypoints
8.1.1 Economic change and political protest
8.1.2 Awkward political management and protest
8.1.3 International trends of protests and effects on the domestic
8.1.4 Political parties and protest
8.1.5 Liberalization and slow economic growth
8.1.6 Pressure and support from donor society
8.1.7 Political learning in the international society
8.1.8 Democratization and failing elites
8.1.9 Competitive politics and democratization
8.2 Factors of Protest, Liberalization and Democratization
8.3 Comparison of Political Structure
8.4 Summary of Comparisons
9 Conclusion
10 Discussion & Comments
11 References

Author: Gustafsson, Oscar

Source: Jönköping University

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