Treatment of Time Delay During Teleoperation

Title: Strategies and Human Interface Techniques for the Treatment of Time Delay During Teleoperation

Teleoperation of remotely located space/underwater vehicles requires the human operator to interact with time delayed vehicle responses to issued commands. This often results in the adoption of a “move and wait” strategy whereby the vehicle operator waits to view the results of the previous command before issuing the next command. This work investigates combining a command display (CD)…

Author: Hall, Sarah Elizabeth

Source: University of Maryland

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1 Introduction
1.1 The Time Delay Issue
1.2 Dealing with Time Delay
1.2.1 Internal Prediction
1.2.2 Computer Assisted Prediction
1.3 Scope of This Dissertation
1.4 Organization
2 Background
2.1 Overview
2.2 History of External Predictor Systems
2.2.1 Adaptive Predictor Systems
2.2.2 Extrapolation Type Predictor Systems
2.3 Command Displays
2.4 Summary
3 Dynamics and Control of Rigid Spacecraft
3.1 Equations of Motion
3.1.1 Kinematic Equations of Motion
3.1.2 Dynamics
3.1.3 External Forces and Torques
3.2 Control Algorithms
3.2.1 Tracking Control Error Metrics
3.2.2 ‘PD’ Control
3.2.3 Model-Based Control
3.2.4 Adaptive, Nonlinear Control
4 Vehicle Simulator
4.1 SCAMP SSV Physical Characteristics
4.1.1 Thruster Saturation
4.1.2 Parameter Limits
4.2 Task and Hoop Course
4.2.1 Collisions
4.3 Control Station
4.3.1 Control Station Graphics
4.3.2 Camera Views
4.3.3 Hand Controllers
4.3.4 Trajectory Generation With Hand Controllers
4.4 Automatic Trajectory Generator
4.4.1 Translational Trajectory Generation
4.4.2 Orientation Generation
4.4.3 Angular Velocity
5 Pilot Study
5.1 Goals
5.2 Methodology
5.3 Pilot Study Gainsets
5.4 Test Procedure
5.5 Results
5.5.1 Average Run Time
5.5.2 Average Controller Errors
5.6 Summary of Results
6 Main Study
6.1 Overview
6.2 Experiment Design
6.3 Test Procedure
6.4 Data Analysis
6.5 Results
6.5.1 Average Run Time
6.5.2 Average Number of Hoops Hit Per Run
6.5.3 Ability to Complete Runs Cleanly
6.5.4 Pilot Effort
6.5.5 Mean Flight Path
6.5.6 Comparison of Hand Controller Usage between Automatic
Trajectory Generator and Human Subjects
6.5.7 Main Flight Window Camera Views
6.5.8 Upper Left Window Camera View Usage
6.5.9 Experience
6.6 Summary of Results
7 Conclusions and Further Study
7.1 Conclusions
7.2 Areas of Future Study
7.2.1 Enlarged Subject Pool
7.2.2 Larger Uncertainty and Trust Breakdown
7.2.3 Implementation on a Physical System
7.2.4 Flight Trajectory
7.2.5 Display Window
A Questionnaires
B Pilot Study Information
C Pilot Study Learning GainTuning Information
D Main Study Learning GainTuning Information
E Pilot Time Data
E.1 Study 1: 0 Second Round Trip Time Delay Run Time Data
E.2 Study 2: 1.25 Second Round Trip Time Delay Data

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