Characterizing Cigarette Lighter Flames to Reduce Unwanted Ignition

This investigation provides detailed measurements and analysis for improved understanding of ignition from the ‘small’ flames produced by cigarette lighters. This research program is motivated by the need to improve the fire safety of cigarette lighters in response to the juvenile firesetter problem…


Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.2 Literature Review
1.3 Objectives
Chapter 2: Experimental Approach
2.1 General Methodology
2.1.1 Nozzle Designations Diffusion Lighter Premixed1 Lighter Premixed2 Lighter Prototype Lighter
2.1.2 Key Operation Parameters
2.2 Experimental Apparatus
2.2.1 Flow Calibration
2.2.2 Stability and Alignment
2.3 Diagnostics
2.3.1 Temperature and Transition to Turbulence
2.3.2 Heat Flux to a Horizontal Flat Plate
2.3.3 Ignition of Filter Paper
2.4 Summary
Chapter 3: Results
3.1 Characterizing Existing Cigarette Lighters
3.1.1 Flame Height
3.1.2 Temperature
3.1.3 Heat Flux
3.1.4 Unwanted Ignition
3.2 Development and Characterization of Prototype
3.2.1 Prototype Flame Height
3.2.2 Prototype Temperature
3.2.3 Prototype Surface Temperature
3.2.4 Prototype Heat Flux
3.2.5 Prototype Unwanted Ignition
Chapter 4: Conclusions
4.1 Temperature Measurements
4.2 Heat Flux Measurements
4.3 Ignition of Filter Paper Measurements
4.4 Overall Prototype Performance
Appendix A: Illustration of Fuel Orifice
Appendix B: Proposed Cigarette Lighter Design Utilizing the Prototype Concept
Appendix C: Illustration of the National Instruments Program Diagram used for High Frequency Temperature Measurements
Appendix D: Matlab Program for Processing Heat Flux to a Horizontal Flat Plate
Appendix E: Prototype Surface Temperature Prediction Method

Author: Williamson, Justin Wade

Source: University of Maryland

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