Women’s hearts: ischaemic heart disease and stress management in women

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), because of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), is a major reason for death both in males and females in the western society. Hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are kinds of well-known risk factors of IHD, but additionally there are psychosocial factors, like stress, vital exhaustion (unusual fatigue, irritability, and demoralization) and depression which have been linked with a greater risk in both sexes. After an AMI, however, females are more inclined than men to be psychosocially impaired leading to suffering and a presumed increase in the risk of repeated cardiac events. Psychosocial factors could be focused in secondary prevention, supporting drug treatment and typical lifestyle advice. There’s some proof of beneficial effects on both psychosocial well-being and cardiac outcomes by psychosocial interventions in men. Far fewer females have been analyzed and the outcomes have been inconsistent. It’s not clear how psychosocial factors convey the increased chance of cardiac events, however, many possible psychopathological mechanisms, including biochemical and physiological links, have been advised….

Contents:¬†Women’s hearts: ischaemic heart disease and stress management in women

INTRODUCTION
Ischaemic heart disease
Medical risk factors
Psychosocial risk factors
Potential pathophysiological mechanisms
Psychosocial interventions in secondary prevention
AIMS
METHODS
Study design
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Study population
Reference groups
Cognitive-behavioural stress management intervention
Conventional care
Self-administered instruments
Blood sampling and biomedical measurements (paper IV)
Heart rate variability (paper V)
Statistical analyses
RESULTS
Subject characteristics
Management of classical cardiovascular risk factors (paper I)
Psychosocial factors
Biological cardiovascular risk indicators (paper IV)
Heart rate variability (paper V)
DISCUSSION
Psychosocial effects
Cardiovascular events and deaths
Biological cardiovascular risk indicators
Heart rate variability
General considerations
CONCLUSIONS
Implications for clinical practice and research…

Source: Umea University

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