Sources and Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Although they have improved the health of countless numbers of humans and animals, antibiotics have been losing their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era. The use of antibiotics in raising food animals has contributed significantly to the global pool of antibiotic resistant organisms. There is no doubt that the use of antibiotics…


Chapter I. Review of Resistance in the Environment
History of Antibiotic Development
History and scope of Resistance
Enterococcus spp
Staphylococcus spp
Streptococcus spp
Food and Waterborne Illness
Other Pathogens
Mechanisms of Antibiotic Action and Resistance
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
Sources of Resistance in the Environment
Agricultural Impacts
Poultry Production
Swine Production
Cattle Production
Human Impacts
Resistant Organisms in the Environment
Soil Ecosystems
Lotic and Lentic Ecosystems
Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems
Spread of Resistance
Gene Transfer
Transfer in the Environment
Soil Environments
Aquatic Environments….


Author: Gangle, Brian James

Source: University of Maryland

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