Enculturation and Acculturation of television use among Asian Indians in the U.S.

This study explored how a cohort of Asian Indians who migrated to the U.S. nearly 40 years ago have become acculturated to watching Indian television via the satellite dish. The study used the integrative communication theory and how two concepts of the theory relate to adaptation: enculturation…


Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1. Focus3
1.2. Purpose
1.3. Significance
1.4. Role of the Researcher
1.5. Definition of Terms
1.6. Study Objectives
1.7. Design of the Study
Chapter 2: Theoretical Framework
2.1. Culture
2.2. Enculturation
2.2.1. Other Examples of Enculturation
2.3. Acculturation
2.3.1. Cross-cultural adaptation
2.3.2. Four acculturation strategies
2.3.3. Psychological acculturation
2.3.4. Acculturation indicators
2.3.5. Acculturation studies
2.4. Cultivation
2.5. Uses and Gratifications Approach
2.6. Diffusion of Innovation
2.7. Summary
Chapter 3: Literature Review
3.1. Ethnic Stereotypes
3.1.1. Stereotypes in the media
3.1.2. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders
3.1.3. Images of India depicted on NET/PBS in the 1960s and1970s
3.1.4. Contemporary stereotypes of Asian Indians in television
3.1.5. Stereotypes of Asian Indians in film
3.1.6. Stereotypes of Asian Indians in mainstream newspapers
3.1.7. Psychological impact of negative images in the media
3.2. Immigrants’ Use of Media
3.2.1. Ethnic media
3.2.2. Cultural identity
3.2.3. Becoming connected to the community
3.2.4. Ethnic newspapers
3.2.5. Video rental
3.2.6. Ethnic media and the adaptation process
3.2.7. Telenovelas
3.2.8. Korean Americans and video use
3.2.9. Korean Americans and satellite television
3.3 Summary
Chapter 4: Historical Overview
4.1. Asian Indians in the U.S.
4.1.1. Immigration
4.1.2. Education, income, and buying power
4.1.3. Asian Indians in the Washington, D.C. Metro area
4.2. Asian Indians’ cultural connection to India
4.2.1. Religion
4.2.2. Recreation
4.2.3. Hindi Films
4.2.4. Newspapers imported from India
4.3. Newspapers that catered to Asian Indians
4.4. Early TV and Radio
4.4.1. Television
4.4.2. Radio
4.5. Changes in technology create changes in media consumption
4.5.1. VCR revolution
4.5.2. Return of Indian movie theaters
4.5.3. Bollywood films
4.5.4. Asian Indians identifying through Bollywood films
4.6. Cable television launches in the U.S
4.7. Satellite Television
4.7.1. Indian programming available in the Washington Metro area via satellite
4.7.2. The Asian Indian television consumer
4.7.3. What does DirecTV offer?
4.7.4. What does the Dish Network offer?
4.7.5. Growth of television in India
4.7.6. Zee TV vs. STAR TV
4.7.7. Westernization of India’s programming
4.7.8. The Indian soap opera
4.8. Summary
Chapter 5: Historical Methodology
5.1. Design of the Study
5.1.1. Rationale for Historical Methodological Approach
5.1.2. Emic vs. Etic
5.2. Use of Chronology
5.2.1. Oral Histories of Media Experts
5.2.2. Oral History Interviews of Asian Indians
5.3. Oral Histories
5.3.1. Culture
5.3.2. Conducting the Oral History The Interview Protocol The Memory
5.4. Sources and Data Gathering
5.4.1. Participants (Asian Indian Cohort)
5.4.2. Snowball Sampling and Procedure
5.4.3. Pre-testing
5.4.4. Setting
5.4.5. Quality of Oral Histories
5.4.6. Institutional Review Board
5.4.7. Sample Size
5.5. Analysis of the data
5.5.1. Coding the data
5.5.2. Results and Discussion
5.6. Summary
Chapter 6: Results and Discussion
6.1. Becoming American
6.1.1. Acculturation Learning the American Culture Language
6.1.2. Enculturation The Soap Opera Family Programming Sports
6.2. Stereotypes of Asian Indians on U.S. television
6.3. Staying connected to India through other media
6.3.1. Watching movies at the theater
6.3.2. Subscribing to Indian newspapers
6.3.3. Renting Indian movies
6.3.4. Watching Indian television on cable access channels
6.3.5. Connection to the culture
6.4. Attraction to Indian programming
6.4.1. Discovering the dish
6.4.2. Up-to-date information
6.4.3. No longer felt like outsiders
6.4.4. Language
6.4.5. Sense of Pride
6.4.6. Music
6.4.7. Indian themes in the programs
6.5. The American Filter
6.5.1. Copying Western Culture
6.5.2. Objectifying Women
6.5.3. News programs not up to standard
6.5.4. Indian soap operas dragged on too long
6.6. Summary
Chapter 7: Conclusion
7.1. Research Questions Revisited
7.1.1. First Question
7.1.2. Second Question
7.1.3. Third Question
7.1.4. Fourth question
7.1.5. Fifth Question
7.1.6. Sixth Question
7.2. Important Insights
7.2.1. Change in technology over time Uses and Gratifications Approach Diffusion of Innovation
7.2.2. Diasporic Community
7.2.3. Fragmented Audience
7.2.4. Media Literate Audience
7.3. Contribution of research to theory and application
7.4. Limitations of the study
7.5. Value of Ethnic Media
7.6. Future research
7.7. Conclusion
Appendix A: Oral History Interview Questions .
Appendix B: Oral History Interview Questions Asked of Media Experts
Appendix C: Standard Oral History Questions Asked of Everyone
Appendix D: Demographic Profile
Appendix E: Consent Form
Appendix F: Consent Script

Author: Somani, Indira Satyanarayan

Source: University of Maryland

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