Hydrologic and Water Quality Benefits of Grass Swales for Managing Highway Runoff

Due to growing awareness of non-point source pollution treatment, the performance of grass swales as a highway runoff treatment and the effect of including a grass filter strip pretreatment area adjacent to the swale were evaluated using a field-scale input/output study on a Maryland highway…


chapter 1:Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Characterization of Storm water Runoff
2.1.1 Total Suspended Solids
2.1.2 Nutrients
2.1.1 Chloride
2.1.1 Heavy Metals
2.2 Flow Characteristics and Runoff Composition
2.3 First Flush of Runoff Pollutants
2.3.1 Concentrations-based first flush
2.3.2 Mass-based first flush
2.3.3 Criteria for first flush
2.3.4 First flush Stormwater Runoff Conclusions
2.4 Event Mean Concentration (EMC)
2.5 Grass Swale Constituent Removal Efficiency
2.5.1 Reporting parameters for grass swale studies
2.5.2 Total suspended solids
2.5.3 Nutrients
2.5.4 Chloride
2.5.5 Heavy metals
2.5.6 Logarithmic data plotting
2.5.7 Barrett regression and model storm event
2.6 Grass Swale Efficiency and Hydrology
2.7 Grass Swale Efficiency and Design Parameters
2.8 Grass Swale Efficiency and Pretreatment
Chapter 3: Methods and Materials
3.1 Site Description
3.2 Sampling Goals and Purpose
3.3 Monitoring Equipment and Protocol
3.3.1 Sampling program
3.3.2 Flow calculation
3.4 Analytical Methodology
3.4.1 TSS analysis
3.4.2 Phosphorus analysis
3.4.3 Nitrate, nitrite, and chloride analysis
3.4.4 TKN analysis
3.4.5 Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc analyses
3.4.6 Quality control
3.4.7 Data below detection limit
3.5 Hydrology Data Evaluation and Calculations
3.5.1 Instantaneous flow drainage area normalization
3.5.2 Total storm volume
3.5.3 Normalized total storm volume
3.6 Pollutant Data Evaluation and Calculations
3.6.1 Total mass load
3.6.2 Event mean concentration (EMC)
3.6.3 Normalized event mean concentration (N-EMC )
3.6.4 First flush diagrams
3.7 Statistical Analysis and Comparison
3.7.1 Overall statistical analysis procedure
3.7.2 Dixon-Thompson test for outliers
3.7.3 Kolmogorov-Smirnov 1-sample test
3.7.4 Paired Student’s T-test
3.7.5 Wilcoxon signed-ranks test
3.7.6 F test of variances
3.8 Swale Comparison Plots
3.8.1 Time based plots
3.8.2 Probability plots
3.8.3 Box and whisker plots
Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
4.1 General Observations
4.2 Hydrology Comparison
4.2.1 Storm event characterization
4.2.2 Flows with respect to time
4.2.3 Peak flow
4.2.4 Time to peak flow
4.2.5 Total volume/infiltration
4.3 General Pollutant Observations
4.4 Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
4.4.1 First flush removal comparison
4.4.2 N-EMC removal comparison
4.4.3 Mass removal comparison
4.5 Nutrients
4.5.1 Mass removal comparison
4.5.2 N-EMC removal comparison
4.6 Chloride
4.6.1 N-EMC removal comparison
4.6.2 Mass removal comparison
4.6.3 First flush removal comparison
4.7 Metals
4.7.1 Zinc
4.7.2 Cadmium
4.7.3 Copper
4.7.4 Lead
Chapter 5: Conclusions
Appendix A: N-EMC and Mass Data for All Storm Events
Appendix B: Flow and Concentration Data with Respect to Time for All
Storm Events

Author: Stagge, James Howard

Source: University of Maryland

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