Minority Rights and the Republic of Albania: Missing the Implementation

Albania has started its way to reform the newly established democratic system, since the early 90’s. The legal system was one between others to be modified in compliance with the international standards set up in the international instruments. Among the reforms, the most important one was the establishment of the human rights standards, especially concerning minority rights, which is the focus of this thesis.The thesis firstly gives a descriptive survey of the minority groups living in Albania and aims at defining the minority groups. It will also point out the issue of no recognition of two minority groups namely, Egyptian and Bosnian, which are considered as communities by the Albanian government. The thesis emphasises that the existence of the minority group is a matter of fact and not depending on the state’s recognition…


2.1 General information, historical facts and demographic figures of Albania
2.2 General information and historical facts about minorities
2.2.1 Status of the minorities after World War One (WWI)
2.2.2 Status of minorities after World War Two (WWII)
2.2.3 Status of minorities after democratic changes
2.3 Specific information on minorities
2.3.1 The Greek Minoritiy Location Demographic changes The Way of living The number of the Greek minority population
2.3.2 The Macedonian Minority Location Demographic changes Way of living The number of Macedonian minority population
2.3.3 Montenegrin (Serbian-Montenegrin) Minority Location Demographic changes Way of living The number of Serbian-Montenegrin minority population
2.3.4 The Roma Minority Location Way of living Demographic changes The number of Roma minority population
2.3.5 Aromanian (Vlach) Minority Location Way of living Demographic changes The number of Aromanian minority population
2.3.6 Egyptian (Gypsy) minority The existence of Gypsy minority Location Way of Living Number of Egyptian minority population
2.3.7 Bosnian Minority Location The number of Bosnian minority population
2.4 The lack of official data and records about minorities in Albania
3.1 The United Nations standards
3.1.1 The ICCPR Standards
3.1.2 The ICESCR Standards
3.1.3 The ICERD Standards
3.1.4 The CRC Standards
3.1.5 The UNESCO’s Convention against Discrimination in Education Standards
3.1.6 Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities standards
3.2 The European Standards
3.2.1 The Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities standard
3.2.2 The European Convention for the Protection of Fundamental Human Rights and Freedoms standards
3.2.3 The European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages standards
3.3 Conclusion
4.1 Albanian Legal Framework on minority rights and its implementation in practice
4.1.1 Principles of equality and non-discrimination Constitutional Provisions Law Provisions
4.1.2 The Rights to freedom of assembly and association Constitutional provisions Law provisions Political organizations Associations and non-governmental organizations Greek organizations Macedonian organizations Serbo-Montenegrin organizations Roma organizations Egyptian organizations Bosnian organization Aromanian organizations
4.1.3 Freedom of expression and freedom of the press Constitutional provisions Print media Greek minority’s print media Macedonian minority’s print media Serbo-Montenegrin minority’s print media Aromanian minority’s print media Bosnian minority’s print media Egyptian minority’s print media Roma minority’s print media Electronic media Greek minority’s electronic media Macedonian minority’s electronic media Serbian-Montenegrin minority’s electronic media Bosnian minority’s electronic media Egyptian minority’s electronic media Aromanian minority’s electronic media Roma minority’s electronic media
4.1.4 The right to maintain contact with persons across the frontier
4.2 Implementation of the right to preserve and use the minority language
4.2.1 The right to use freely the minority language In public and private life In judicial proceedings In relation between the minority persons and the administrative authorities
4.2.2 The right to use the surname and first name in the minority language
4.2.3 The right to display in minority language traditional local names, street names and other topographical indications
intended for the public, signs, inscriptions and other information of a private nature visible to the public
4.2.4 The right to education in the minority language, to learn and be taught the minority language Schools belonging to the Greek national minority Schools belonging to the Macedonian national minority Schools belonging to the Serbo-Montenegrin national minority Schools belonging to the Bosnian minority Schools belonging to Egyptian (Gypsy) minority Schools belonging to Aromanian (Vlach) minority Schools belonging to Roma minority
4.2.5 Conclusion
4.3 Albanian national monitoring system on minority rights
4.3.1 The right to address complaints for the breach of the minority rights to a monitoring body Judicial body Administrative body Constitutional Court People’s Advocate The State Committee for Minorities
4.3.2 The right to the remedy for the breach of the minority rights
4.3.3 Conclusion
4.4 Implementation of the international standards on minority rights in Albania analyzed through the international monitoring system
4.4.1 Relation between the national legislation and the international law….

Author: Xhaxho, Manjola

Source: University of Lund

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