Adaptor Proteins in Regulation of Receptor Endocytosis

Ligand-induced endocytosis of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a dynamic process governed by numerous protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. This is a major mechanism of signal termination and is also frequently impaired in cancer. The Cbl family of ubiquitin ligases has been shown to play a key role in downregulation of RTKs, by directing their ligand-induced ubiquitination and subsequent lysosomal degradation. My thesis work has led to the identification of novel, ubiquitin-ligase independent, functions of Cbl in receptor endocytosis. We demonstrated that the adaptor protein CIN85 links Cbl with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) internalization. The three SH3 domains of CIN85 interact with Cbl/Cbl-b in a phosphotyrosine dependent manner, whereas its proline-rich region constitutively binds endophilins, known regulators of plasma membrane invagination. The SH3 domains of CIN85 recognize an atypical proline-arginine (PxxxPR) motif present in Cbl and Cbl-b. Moreover, we showed that numerous endocytic regulatory proteins, among them ASAP1 and Dab2, interact with CIN85 via their PxxxPR motifs. The SH3 domains of CIN85 are able to cluster and exchange its effectors at subsequent stages of EGFR endocytosis, thus participating in the control of receptor internalization, recycling and degradation in the lysosome. We proposed that CIN85 functions as a scaffold molecule implicated in control of multiple steps in downregulation of RTKs.Furthermore, we identified two novel Cbl- and ubiquitin-interacting adaptor proteins named Sts-1 and Sts-2 (Suppressors of T-cell receptor signaling). Ligand-induced and Cbl-mediated recruitment of Sts-1/Sts-2 into activated EGFR complexes led to inhibition of receptor internalization and subsequent block of receptor degradation followed by prolonged mitogenic signaling pathways. Our results indicate that Sts-1 and Sts-2 represent a new class of negative regulators of Cbl functions in receptor endocytosis.In conclusion, this thesis describes novel mechanisms by which Cbl, coupled to its effectors, orchestrates trafficking of RTKs. Detailed understanding of how these processes are controlled under physiological as well as under pathological conditions may be important for future therapeutic approaches.


1 Receptor tyrosine kinase family
1.1 Interaction domains build signaling pathways
2 Signaling by EGFR
2.1 Receptors and their ligands
2.2 Multiple ErbB induced signaling pathways
2.3 Crosstalk between the ErbB network and other pathways
3 Impaired ErbB signaling in cancer
3.1 Therapeutic approaches
4 Negative receptor signaling
4.1 Antagonistic ligands
4.2 Serine and threonine phosphorylation
4.3 Protein tyrosine phosphatases
4.4 Sprouty
4.5 Subcellular localization
5 EGF receptor downregulation by endocytosis
5.1 The endocytic pathway
5.2 Multiple protein-protein and protein-lipid networks coordinate EGFR trafficking
5.3 Lipids and membrane trafficking
5.4 Ubiquitin constitutes a critical signal for receptor endocytosis
6 Cbl proteins in regulation of RTK endocytosis
6.1 Cbl – a multidomain adaptor protein and a ubiquitin ligase
6.2 Knock-out mice
6.3 Cbl in RTK downregulation
6.4 Impaired Cbl functions in cancer
7 CIN85/CMS endocytic scaffold proteins
1 Paper I
2 Paper II
3 Paper III and IV
4 Paper V

Author: Kowanetz, Katarzyna

Source: Uppsala University Library

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