Currently, code-division multiple access (CDMA) technique continues to be a dominant air-interface technology for personal wireless communication systems. Mobile communication systems based on CDMA is always subject to multiple access interference (MAI) problem due to the difficulty in maintaining orthogonality of CDMA signals in a mobile environment.
From a historical perspective, electromagnetic modelling and its techniques of optimization are relatively new to the academic community. Their existence has facilitated the development of complex electromagnetic structures, and provides invaluable aid when designing electronic products that face strict radiation legislation. This