Considering the fact that plants are unable to avoid their predators by walking, they use some other defense systems, like induction or repression of defense genes. A test carried out with barley attacked by the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), resulted in
In every living cell, millions of different types of molecules constantly interact and react chemically in a complex system that can adapt to fluctuating environments and extreme conditions, living to survive and reproduce itself. The information required to produce these components is stored in the genome, which is copied in each cell division and transferred and mixed with another genome from parent to child.
High-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with cancer. HPVs are strictly epitheliotropic and infect basal cell layers, establishing a life cycle strongly linked to the differentiation stage of the infected cells. The viral capsid late genes, L2 and L1, are only
In this thesis, methods to study gene and protein expression in cells and tissues were developed and utilized in combination with protein-specific antibodies, with the overall objective to attain greater understanding of protein function.To analyze protein expression in in vitro cultured cell